Abstract: "Despite high rates of use of both cannabis and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), little is known about the role of cannabis use among ENDS users and of ENDS use among cannabis users. This study tested whether dual use was related to more frequent use, use-related problems, and negative affect. Among cannabis users (n=315), ENDS was associated with more frequent cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, anxiety, and depression. Among ENDS users (n=156), cannabis was associated with more frequent ENDS use, ENDS-related problems, and anxiety. Overall, ENDS use is common among cannabis users and cannabis use is common among ENDS users. Further, use of both of these substances is related to more use, use-related problems, and negative affect, especially anxiety".
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